Also spelled The pages following the text at the end of a book on which the appendices, notes, bibliographies, list of contributors, indices, imprint, and any advertising normally appear.

In scholarly works, the back matter may be considerable.

By folding the leaves over each other close to the binding edge, the process also helps maintain the rounded shape of the spine, preventing the leaves from working their way forward.

A badge may also indicate the individual's position, enabling the patron to distinguish professionally trained librarians from members of the technical staff.

Not all libraries encourage employees to wear badges.

A jobber in the business of supplying books, videocassettes, and music materials to retailers and libraries, usually at a discount, and of providing value added and customized services to meet the needs of libraries of all types.

B&T products and services are listed and described in its trade catalogs. In budgeting, to keep expenditures in line with income, usually for the duration of a fixed accounting period.

In printing and Web page design, to arrange text and graphics on a page in a configuration that is aesthetically pleasing.

A library collection containing materials that present the full range of opinion on controversial issues and sensitive topics, for example, the "for" and "against" positions on legalized abortion, or religious books representing a variety of faiths.Also spelled A printed, engraved, or photographic device in plastic, metal, paper, or cloth indicating support of a cause, signifying membership or achievement in a group or society, or verifying identity, usually intended to be worn visibly on the person and often preserved as memorabilia (, badges are cataloged as graphic materials.Also, a removable name tag worn by a library employee who works in public services, identifying the wearer to library patrons.In illuminated manuscripts, the background in a miniature can be undecorated, diapered, or foliate, with or without gilding, as in the preceding examples from a Gospel book and a In bookbinding, the process of shaping a shoulder on each side of the binding edge of the text block after rounding, before lining is applied to the back.In hand-binding, a backing hammer is used to bend the backs of the sewn sections from the center of the text block toward the front and back, forming ridges against which the boards of the cover rest.In a more general sense, any strategy designed to be implemented if a preferred method or system fails.