Application of OSL dating leads to erroneous ages, largely due to the uncertainty associated with the estimation on the dose rates.Turkey Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)(vi) Located in southwestern Turkey, in the upper valley of the Morsynus River, the site consists of two components: the archaeological site of Aphrodisias and the marble quarries northeast of the city.

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Excavated from the 1860s, six caves have revealed items dating from 43,000 to 33,000 years ago.

Among them are carved figurines of animals (including cave lions, mammoths, horses and bovids), musical instruments and items of personal adornment.

The temple of Aphrodite dates from the 3rd century BC and the city was built one century later.

The wealth of Aphrodisias came from the marble quarries and the art produced by its sculptors.

, indicates an early representative of the typical Asian elephant fauna.

Previous U-series dating of flowstone calcite has pinpointed an upper age limit for the fossils of about 100 ka.

Situated at the confluence of the Volga, the Sviyaga and the Shchuka rivers, at the crossroads of the Silk and Volga routes, Sviyazhsk was founded by Ivan the Terrible in 1551.

It was from this outpost that he initiated the conquest of the Kazan Khanate.

Germany Criteria: (iii) Modern humans first arrived in Europe 43,000 years ago during the last ice age.