Experienced condom users are significantly less likely to have a condom slip or break compared to first-time users, although users who experience one slippage or breakage are more likely to suffer a second such failure.A Family Health International publication also offers the view that education can reduce the risk of breakage and slippage, but emphasizes that more research needs to be done to determine all of the causes of breakage and slippage.This type of behavior is the primary cause of typical use failure (as opposed to method or perfect use failure).

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Condoms may also be useful in treating potentially precancerous cervical changes.

Exposure to human papillomavirus, even in individuals already infected with the virus, appears to increase the risk of precancerous changes.

Condoms are used to reduce the likelihood of pregnancy during intercourse and to reduce the likelihood of contracting sexually-transmitted infections (STIs).

Condoms are also used during fellatio to reduce the likelihood of contracting STIs.

While not perfect, the condom is effective at reducing the transmission of organisms that cause AIDS, genital herpes, cervical cancer, genital warts, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and other diseases.

According to a 2000 report by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), consistent use of latex condoms reduces the risk of HIV/AIDS transmission by approximately 85% relative to risk when unprotected, putting the seroconversion rate (infection rate) at 0.9 per 100 person-years with condom, down from 6.7 per 100 person-years.Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some disease transmission may occur even with a condom.Infectious areas of the genitals, especially when symptoms are present, may not be covered by a condom, and as a result, some diseases like HPV and herpes may be transmitted by direct contact.Some couples find that putting on a condom interrupts sex, although others incorporate condom application as part of their foreplay.Some men and women find the physical barrier of a condom dulls sensation.Among people who intend condoms to be their form of birth control, pregnancy may occur when the user has sex without a condom.